Volume 17
February / Février 1998

Notes From the CEA




Faculty/Corps Professoral

New Appointments, Departures/Récentes Nominations, Départs

University of Alberta, Department of Rural Economics

Naomi Krogman, former Ph.D. candidate at Colorado State University, appointment effective March 1, 1997

Grant Hauer, former Ph.D. candidate at University of Minnesota, appointment effective July 1, 1997

Mel Lerohl appointed to Acting Chair effective Sept. 1, 1997 to Aug. 31, 1998

Dhara Gill retired effective July 1, 1997

Eloise Murray retired effective January 1, 1997

Ed Tyrchniewicz retired effective September 1, 1997

University of British Columbia, Faculty of Commerce

Gilles Chemla, previously at the Universitat Pompeu Fabra, Spain, appointment effective July 1997

Gerald Garvey, formerly at the Sydney University, Australia, appointment effective November 1996

Kai Li, appointment effective July 1996

Tan Wang, appointment effective July 1996

Brock University

Saadettin Erksoy, previously at Okanagan University College, St. Mary's University, appointment effective August 15, 1997/dd>

University of Calgary

Cameron R. Donaldson, previously at the Dept. of Public Health, Aberdeen, Scotland, appointed Svare University Chair in Health Economics effective July 1, 1998 (Joint appointment with the Department of Economics and the Dept. of Community Health Sciences)

Concordia University

Caroline Boivin, from HEC, appointment effective Aug. 15, 1997 to May 31, 1998

Benoit Julien, from the University of Western Ontario, appointment effective Aug. 15, 1996 to May 31, 1998

Xuelin Zhang, from Concordia University, appointment effective August 15, 1997 to May 31, 1998

Frank Hayes, retired effective June 1, 1996

Patricia Koss left May 31, 1997 after a limited term appointment

Mahandhiran Nair left May 31, 1996 after a limited term appointment

John O'Brien retired effective September 1, 1996

Akira Takahashi retired effective May 31, 1997

Guelph University, Dept. of Agricultural Economics & Business

Elliott Currie, appointment effective January 1, 1998

W.M. Braithwaite retired effective August 1997

Université Laval

Claude Autin, retraite 1er septembre 1997

McMaster University

Stuart Mestelman appointed Chair, Dept. of Economics, effective July 1, 1997

Alan Harrison appointed Dean, Faculty of Social Sciences, effective July 1, 1997

James A. Johnson retired effective June 30, 1997

Université de Montréal

Nour Meddahi, Post-doctorat, Université de Chicago, appointment effective 1er juillet 1997

Gérard Gaudet, Directeur de Département de sciences économiques, Université de Montréal, appointment effective 1er janvier 1998

University of Ottawa

Bernard Babineau, Ph.D. candidate from Concordia, appointed to a one-year contract effective August 1, 1997 to July 31, 1998

University of Saskatchewan, Department of Agricultural Economics

Rick White left for a new position at CWB, Winnipeg, Alberta effective July 31, 1997

Pauline Molder left for a new position as Program Coordinator, Cooperative Education Program in Agriculture at the University of Saskatchewan effective August 31, 1997

Trent University

Bruce Cater, appointed to a five-month sessional position effective January 1, 1998

University of Western Ontario

Andreas Hornstein left at the end of his appointment effective September 30, 1997 and has gone to the Federal Reserve Bank of Richmond

University of Winnipage

Dieynaba Tandian, a Post-Doc from U. Montréal, appointment effective August 1, 1997

Visiting Appointments/Professeur(e)s Invité(e)s

University of British Columbia

Robert Gateman, September 1, 1997

Ian Keay, January 1, 1998

Mark Moore, September 1, 1997

Concordia University

Jogen Hansen, Goteborg University, Sweden, Jan. 1/98 - May 31/98

Stelios Vournas, Univ. of La Verne, Athens Campus, Jan. 1/98 - May 31/98

McGill University

Marcel Dagenais, Université de Montréal, January - May 1998

Nadeem Ilahi, Lahore University of Management Science, January - August 1998

Queen's University

Thomas McCurdy, University of Toronto, Spring-Summer 1998

University of Toronto

Stephen Gordon, Université Laval, July 1, 1998

Tom Ross, University of British Columbia, July 1, 1998

University of Waterloo

Robert Cook, York University, January 1, 1997

Alan Dicner, McMaster University, January 1, 1997

Derek Pyne, York University, January 1, 1997

University of Western Ontario

Mike Burns, Flinders University of South Australia, January 1, 1998

Gerhard Illing, University of Frankfurt, January 1, 1998

Tiff Macklem, Bank of Canada, January 1, 1998

Awards & Other News/Distinctions & Autre Nouvelles

University of British Columbia

Paul Beaudry won the Petro Canada Young Innovator Award for his research into ways Canadian society can protect jobs, families and communities as the economy changes in an effort to stay competitive.

Mukesh Eswaran was awarded the Shastri Indo-Canadian Faculty Research Fellowship

John Helliwell with R. Putnam was given Honorable Mention for the Otto Eckstein Prize awarded every two years for the best paper published in the Eastern Economic Journal

Scott Taylor awarded a Fellowship by the Japanese Society for the Promotion of Science

University of Calgary

Eugene C. Beaulieu, Young Innovator Award

McMaster University

Martin Browning was awarded the title of University Professor, effective July 1, 1997, by the Senate of McMaster University, in recognition of truly outstanding contributions to McMaster University in research, scholarship and education

William Scarth was selected as McMaster University's 1997 recipient of the President's Award for Instruction in recognition of outstanding contributions to education

Université de Montréal

Marcel Boyer, Program chairman, North American Summer Meeting of the Econometric Society, 25-28 juin 1998, Montréal (http://www.cirano.umontreal.ca/nasm98)

(Université de Montréal) - École des Hautes Études Commerciales

Martin Coiteux: Prix CEDROM-SMI for best multimedia pedagogical material

Robert Gagné: Prix Gaetan-Morin éditeur for most promising contributions in research

University of Saskatchewan, Department of Agricultural Economics

R.A. Schoney received the Golden Quill Award for Historical Income Approach to Surrendered Ochapawace Lands of Saskatchewan, American Society of Farm Managers and Rural Appraisers, 1996

Richard Gray received the ANBAR Electronic Intelligence Citation of Excellence Award for Gray, R. (1996) Joint Author "North American wheat wars and the end-use certificate-compromising free trade?", Journal of World Trade, June 30/3

University of Toronto

Al Berry, Fellow of the Royal Society

University of Western Ontario

Jeffrey A. Smith, John Charles Polanyi Prize, 1997
Short-Term Visitors/Futurs Visiteurs

University of Alberta, Department of Rural Economy

Russell Tronstad, Associate Specialist, on sabbatical leave from the Dept. of Agriculture & Resource Economics, University of Arizona, August 7, 1997 to February 28, 1998

University of British Columbia

Kil-Sang Yoo, Employment Research Center, Korea, January 1 to December 31, 1998

University of Calgary

Hugh R. Bigsby, Lincoln Univ., Christchurch, N.Z., December 1997 - August 1998

Dalhousie University

Olga Soukhovtseva, formerly of Russian Academy of National Economy, January 1/98 - June 30/98

Leyuan Tian, Shandong Academy of Sciences, P.R. of China, March 1/98 - February 28/99

Marge Sults, Tallinn Technical University, Estonia, Jan. - March 1998

Vadim Ivachtchouk, University of Latvia, Latvia, Jan. - March 1998

Rein Lumiste, Tallinn Technical University, Estonia, Jan. - Mar. 1998

McMaster University

David Pines, Tel Aviv University, February through April 1998

David Card, Princeton University, week of 16 March 1998

Université de Montréal

Christian Gourieroux, Univ. Paris IX et ENSAE, 9 février au 1er mars 98

Paul Bernd Spain, University of Frankfurt, 5 au 12 avril 1998

Queen's University

Hafiz Akhand, University of Regina, July 1998 - June 1999

Shinsuke Ikeda, Osaka University, April - May, 1998

Chris Worswick, University of Melbourne, July-December 1998

University of Saskatchewan, Department of Agricultural Economics

George Brinkman, Univ. of Guelph, Agricultural Econ., Oct. 1998

University of Toronto

Mike Whinston, Harvard University, March 9-11, 1998

Ben Friedman, Harvard University, April 6-7, 1998

University of Victoria

Hiroshi Izawa, Ritsumeikan University, Kyoto, Japan, Visit extended from August 1, 1997 to April 30, 1998

University of Western Ontario

Motty Perry, Hebrew University, Winter 1998
Miscellaneous Information/Divers


March/April 1998: Post-Budget Conference. To be held at the School of Policy Studies, Queen's University. Sponsored by the John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy. Contact: Thomas J. Courchene, Director, John Deutsch Institute (courchen@qsilver.queensu.ca).

March 6-7, 1998: "Regions in Canadian Growth: A Symposium in honour of Professor Alan G. Green". To be held at the Department of Economics, Queen's University. Sponsored by the Department of Economics, Queen's University. Contact: D.C. Smith, Economics, Queen's University (smithdc@qed.econ.queensu.ca) or (dsmith@trentu.ca).

April 9-11, 1998: Women and Work Conference. To be held at the School of Policy Studies, Queen's University. Sponsored by the John Deutsch Institute for the Study of Economic Policy and Canadian Workplace Research Network. Contacts: Rick Chaykowski, School of Industrial Relations (chaykows@post.queensu.ca) and Lisa Powell, School of Policy Studies (powelll@qed.econ.queensu.ca).

May 13-16, 1998: Experimenting with Freer Markets: Lessons from the Last 20 Years and Prospects for the Future. To be held at the Château Frontenac, Québec. General Conference Chairman: Jean-Thomas Bernard, Université Laval, Quebec. Finance Coordinator: Gaétan Lafrance, INRS-Energie et Matériaux, Montréal. Program Chairman: André Plourde, University of Ottawa, Ottawa. Contact: Marie-Claude Jouvet: tél.: (418) 656-2096, fax: (418) 656-7412, e-mail: mcjo@ecn.ulaval.ca.

May 27-28, 1998: Canadian Public Economics Study Group. To be held at the University of Ottawa. Sponsored by the University of Ottawa and Carleton University. Contact: radevlin@uottawa.ca or stan_winer@carleton.ca.

June 21-23, 1998: Farming for Profit II? 5th Annual Moose Jaw Conference. To be held at the Temple Gardens Mineral Spa, Heritage Inn, Moose Jaw, SK. Sponsored by the University of Saskatchewan (Agricultural Economics Department) and the University of Florida (Food & Resource Economics). Contact: Andrew Schmitz, University of Florida, Phone: (352) 392-1845 Ext. 415 or Fax: (352) 392-3646.

July 3-6, 1998: The Fourth International Meeting of the Society for Social Choice and Welfare. To be held at the University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C. Sponsored by the Department of Economics, University of British Columbia. Keynote speakers: Allan Gibbard (University of Michigan), James Mirrlees (Cambridge University), Mark Satterthwaite (Northwestern University). The conference web paper (http://web.arts.ubc.ca/econ/scw.htm) provides further information about the conference. Contact: Enquiries may be directed to John Weymark at (e-mail) scw@econ.ubc.ca, (phone) 1-(604) 822-4121, or (fax) 1-(604) 822-5915.

September 19-21, 1998: Canadian Econometric Study Group. To be held in London, Ontario. Sponsoring organizations to be announced. Contact: Jeff Smith at (519) 661-3079 or e-mail: cesg@scylla.sscl.uwo.ca.

September 27-28, 1998: The Canadian International Labour Network. To be held at the Venture Inn in Burlington, Ontario. The conference theme will be "Labour Market Institutions and Labour Market Outcomes: International Perspectives". Contact: Further details, including registration information and a conference programme, will be posted on the CILN website as they become available.


CALL FOR PAPERS: The State of Living Standards and the Quality of Life In Canada: Perspectives and Prospective.
The Centre for the Study of Living Standards (CSLS) is seeking proposals for a major research project on the state of living standards and the quality of life in Canada. The project is being coordinated by Andrew Sharpe and Lars Osberg. A major conference will be held in Ottawa in October 1998. A refereed volume based on the conference papers will be published by the University of Toronto Press. Specific Areas in which proposals for papers are being sought include:
  • conceptual issues concerning the measurement of social and economic well-being;
  • the documentation of trends in the movement of particular measures or indicators of social and economic well-being;
  • the development of composite indexes of economic and social well-being; and
  • the formulation of specific policies to improve various aspects of the well-being of Canadians.
Proposals should consist of a 1-2 paper description of the proposed research, including a clear statement of purpose, methodology, and possible policy implications. Subject to the availability of funds, travel and accommodation expenses to the conference can be covered. Please submit proposals by March 31, 1998 to: Andrew Sharpe, Executive Director, Centre for the Study of Living Standards, 111 Sparks Street, Suite 500, Ottawa, Ontario K1P 5B5. Tele: (613) 233-8891, Fax: (613) 233-8250, e-mail: csls@csls.ca, web-site: www.csls.ca.

CALL FOR PAPERS: Briefing Notes in Economics
Briefing Notes in Economics is accepting submissions for publication consideration in its future issues. Briefing Notes welcomes papers in all areas of economics and uses a double-blind refereeing process. Send copies of papers to Dr. P. Dabir-Alai, Editor, Briefing Notes in Economics, The Business School, Richmond College, Queens Road, Richmond, Surrey TW10 6JP, England. Fax: 44-171-938-3037, e-mail: bne@staff.richmond.ac.uk. You may visit Briefing Notes' web-site for further information. The web-site is at http://www.richmond.ac.uk/bne/.

CWEN Executive effective July 1997
President Roberta Robb (Brock)
Vice-President: Joann Kingston-Riechers (McMaster)
Past-President: Shelley Phipps (Dalhousie)
Secretary/Treasurer Linda Welling (Univ. of Victoria)
Member-at-Large Diane Dupont (Brock)
IAFFE Link: Frances Woolley (Carleton)
Newsletter/Web Page: Brenda Spotton (York)

University of Ottawa
Chantale LaCasse is the T.D. MacDonald Chair at the Bureau of Competition Policy from 1 August 1997 to July 31, 1998.

Recent Books

Brock University

Mary Ann Dimand, Robert W. Dimand, and Evelyn L. Forget, eds., Women of Value: Feminist Essays on the History of Women in Economics, Cheltenham, UK, and Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1995.

Mary Ann Dimand and Robert W. Dimand, A History of Game Theory, Vol. I, From the Beginnings to 1945, London and New York: Routledge, 1996.

Mary Ann Dimand and Robert W. Dimand, eds., The Foundations of Game Theory, 3 vols., Cheltenham, UK, and Lyme, NH: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1997.

The Works of Irving Fisher, 14 vols., ed. William J. Barber assisted by Robert W. Dimand and Kevin Foster, consulting ed. James Tobin, London: Pickering and Chatto, 1997.
Mohammed H.I. Dore, The Macrodynamics of Business Cycles: A Comparative Evaluation, New York: Basil Blackwell, 1993; Japanese translation, Tokyo: Bunka Shobou Hakubunsha, 1995.

Queen's University

John M. Hartwick and Nancy D. Olewiler (1997), The Economics of Natural Resource Use, Second Edition, Boston, Longmans.

Obituary: Michèle Pujol (1951-1997)
The death of Michèle Pujol on August 2 deprived feminist economists, historians of economic thought, and Canadian economists of an inspiring colleague and friend, who will be sorely missed. She died on Salt Spring Island, British Columbia, in the home of her partner Brook, after five months of battling cancer.
      Michèle brought dedication, insight and enthusiasm to her teaching in Economics departments and Women's Studies programs at the University of Manitoba (1981-88) and the University of Victoria (1990-97). She also remained an activist beyond campus, helping, for example, to organize Winnipeg's first Gay/Lesbian Pride Marches and first Women's Music Festival. Michèle's eloquent published research touched an even broader audience than her teaching, community activism, and conference participation. She combined meticulous scholarship with a profound commitment to illuminating the role of women in the economy and in economics. Her doctoral dissertation at Simon Fraser University formed the basis of her path-breaking book, Feminism and Anti-Feminism in Early Economic Thought (Aldershot, UK, and Brookfield, VT: Edward Elgar Publishing, 1992), which greatly extended the scope of the history of economics in two directions. She shone a searchlight on the analysis of women's economic role in what she termed the "malestream" of British classical political economy and early neoclassical economics from Adam Smith to Edgeworth and Pigou, a topic which malestream historians of economics tend to restrict to discussion of John Stuart Mill (The only central figure in classical or early neoclassical economics to emerge honourably from such scrutiny). She also extended the canon of past economics, rescuing from neglect (and what E.P. Thompson called 'the crushing condescension of posterity") fascinating feminist analytical contributions on economic inequality by Harriet Hardy Taylor (later Harriet Taylor Mill), Barbara Leigh Smith Bodichon, Millicent Garrett Fawcett, Eleanor Rathbone, and William Smart. Writing on "The feminist economic thought of Harriet Haylor (1807-58)" in Women of Value: Feminist Essays on the History of Women in Economics (Mary Ann Dimand, Robert Dimand and Evelyn Forget, eds., Edward Elgar Publishing, 1995), Michèle established the "materialist analysis that distinguishes Taylor from Mill's idealist and male-centred position. There cannot be any doubt that Taylor stands on her own as an original and insightful feminist thinker and as an economist and political theorist." Michèle captivated the History of Economics Society annual meeting at the University of British Columbia in June 1996 with a presentation on her most ambitious project for extending the canon, a multi-volume anthology of women's contributions to political economy before 1900 which she was editing for publication by Routledge and Thoemmes Press. This major work, of four or more volumes, is being completed by her friends, and promises to transform our knowledge of the history of women in economics.
      In addition to pioneering feminist history of economics, Michèle was active in contemporary feminist economics, with particular attention to broadening research methodology. She was engaged in a study of the implementation of pay equity policies in Manitoba, which her friends are preparing for publication. An associate editor of Feminist Economics from its foundation, Michèle, together with Nancy Folbre, edited an "Explorations" section in the Fall 1996 issue (Volume 2, Number 3) on feminist issues in national accounting and on research priorities on nonmarket production. Michèle guest-edited a five-paper "Explorations" section on "Broadening Economic Data and Methods" in the Summer 1997 issue of Feminist Economics (Volume 3, Number 2), and in 1995 presented "Is This Really Economics? Using Qualitative Research Methods in Feminist Economic Research" to the International Association for Feminist Economics (IAFFE) conference in Tours. A contributor to Out of the Margin: Feminist Perspectives on Economic Theory (Edith Kuiper and Jolande Saps, eds., Routledge, 1995) and active participant in the 1996 IAFFE conference in Washington, DC, Michèle was a tremendously active, committed, articulate and productive scholar who challenged and was beginning to transform accepted views about the past and methodology of economics. Her scholarly contributions, and her warmth, enthusiasm and commitment, will be missed. Her research and her memory will continue to inspire feminist economists.
      The Michèle Pujol Scholarship Fund will benefit Women's Studies students at the University of Victoria who are low-income, lesbian, women of colour, and/or Native women. Cheques made out to the Michèle Pujol Scholarship Fund may be mailed to Box 287, Ganges Post Office, Salt Spring Island, British Columbia V9K 2V9. Atlantis: A Women's Studies Journal will publish a special issue, "Sexual Economics" (Vol. 32, No. 2, Spring 1999), on feminist economic perspectives, to celebrate the life and work of Michèle Pujol, with submissions due by July 1, 1998. General information about submissions is available from the guest editor: Marjorie Griffin Cohen, Department of Women's Studies, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, British Columbia V5A 1S6, e-mail: mcohen@sfu.ca.
              - Robert Dimand, Brock University
Doctoral Theses/Théses de Doctorat

University of British Columbia, Dept. of Economics

Benoit Delage, (August 1997) "Three Essays on Policy Function Assignment in a Federation"

University of British Columbia, Faculty of Commerce

Khang Min Lee, (November 21, 1997) "Interaction between Financial and Real Decision in an International Economy"

Concordia University

Yanuarita Hendrani, (1996) "Wage Changes, Industrial Mobility and Duration's of Unemployment of Displaced Workers: Evidence from Canadian Microdata"

Xeulin Zhang, (1997) "An Endogeneous Search Model and Its Application

Guelph University

Emmanuel Yiridoe, (September 1997) "Bio-Economics of Agricultural Nonpoint Source Pollution Control: Nitrates in Southwestern Ontario"

Michael Swidinsky, (June 1997) "The Off Farm Labour-Supply and Farm/Off-Farm Labour Reallocation of Farm Operators: A Conceptual Framework and Empirical Study"

University of Manitoba

Abdella Abdou, (October 1997) "Structural Adjustment and Private Investment in Africa

Happy Kufigwa Siphambe, (October 1997) "Earnings Differentials and Rates of Return to Education in Botswana"

Saeed Moshiri, (November 1997) "Forecasting Inflation Using Econometric and Artificial Neural Network Models"

McMaster University

Robert Godby, (June 1997) "The Effect of Market Power in Emission Permit Markets"

Mary-Anne Sillamaa, (November 1997) "Experiments in Taxation and Labour Supply"

Université de Montréal

Yves Alarie, (septembre 1997) "Trois études sur la prise de décision en incertitude en économie"

Bernardin Akitoby, (août 1997) "Essais en macroéconomie et équilibre général dynamique"

Feza Haldun Sarlan, (juillet 1997) "Three Essays on the Analysis of Economic Fluctuations"

Queen's University, Dept. of Economics

Philip Bodman, (October 1997) "Essays on Factor Mobility, Economic Integration and Economic Growth"

Patrick Osakwe, (October 1997) "Commodity Aid, Borrowing and Employment in a Small Open Economy"

John Spicer, (October 1997) "Essays on Dynamic Games"

Jianmin Tang, (October 1997) "Essays on International Environmental Cooperation"

Shandre Thangavelu, (October 1997) "Technology Adoption, Government Intervention, and Total Factor Productivity Growth"

Queen's University, Business School

David Arthurs, (October 1997) "An Evolutionary Approach to Modelling Technological Change"

Heikki Monkkonen, (October 1997) "Modelling Default Risk: Theory and Empirical Evidence"

University of Saskatchewan

Emmanuel C. Musaba, (December 1996) "Spatial Diffusion of Economic Impacts of Integrated Ethanol-Cattle Production Complex in Saskatchewan"

Raman Srivastava, (Spring 1997) "A Vertical Trade Model of the International Pork Industry"

Ahmad Gheidi, (September 1997) "Carbon Sequestration in Agricultural Soils: An Integrated Modeling Approach"

Simon Fraser University

Keith Christian Jensen, (August 1997) "Institutional Patterns in International Treaty Making: Problems in Economic Models"

Samuel Amartei Laryea, (September 1997) "Estimating the Impact of Foreign-Born Labour on Wage Rates in Canada"

Priyanut Plboolsravut, (December 1997) "An Outline of Buddhist Economic Theory and System"

Naeem Muhammad, (December 1997) "A re-Examination Of the Trade Balance-Exchange Rate Relationship"

Isaac Ablodun Abiola, (November 1997) "Modeling Credit Risk Spread and Interest Rate Volatility in the Eurodollar Market"

University of Toronto

Leslie Shiell, (May 1997) "Equity, Efficiency, and the Second Best in Dynamic Policy Analysis"

Pierre-P. Gendron, (June 1997) "Essays on Corporate Taxation and the Firm"

Sanjit Dhami (June 1997) "Three Essays in the Formation & Evolution of Fiscal Policy Under Uncertainty and Asymmetric Information"

Xianming Zhou, (August 1997) "Essays on Executive Compensation and Managerial Incentives"

Peter Ibbott, (October 1997) "Intergenerational Changes in the Distribution of Canadian Living Standards"

The University of Western Ontario

Seok-Dong Want, (October 1997) "Occupational Choice, Financial Markets and Income Distribution"
Recent Working Papers/Récents Cahiers de Recherche

To order individual copies of the working papers contact the institution

Bank of Canada

G. Wilkinson, "A Micro Approach to the Issue of Hysteresis in Unemployment: Evidence from the 1988-90 Labour Market Activity Survey"

S. Hogan, "What Does Downward Nominal-Wage Rigidity Imply for Monetary Policy?"

R. Amano and T. Macklem, "Menu Costs, Relative Prices, and Inflation: Evidence for Canada"

J. Millar, "The Effects of Budget Rules on Fiscal Performance and Macroeconomic Stabilization"

R. Black and D. Rose, "The Canadian Policy Analysis Model: CPAM"

M. Lefebvre, "Les marchés du travail régionaux: une comparaison entre le Canada et les États-Unis"

D.G. Watt, "Canadian Short-Term Interest Rates and BAX Futures Market"

I. Claus, "Modelling the Behaviour of U.S. Inventories: A Cointegration-Euler Approach"

I. Claus, "A Measure of Underlying Inflation in the United States"

University of British Columbia

John A. Weymark, "Welfarism on Economic Domains"

David Donaldson and John A. Weymark, "A Quasiordering is the Intersection of Orderings"

Robert C. Allen, "The Demand and Supply of Post-Secondary Eduction and Training in British Columbia"

Rolf Weder, "Comparative Home-Market Advantage: An Empirical Analysis of British and American Exports"

Joris Pinkse, Margaret E. Slade and Craig Brett, "Spatial Price Competition: A Semiparametric Approach"

Charles Blackorby, Walter Bossert and David Donaldson, "Rationalizable Solutions to Pure Population Problems"

Ken Hendricks, Michele Piccione and Guofu Tan, "Equilibria in Networks"

Robert C. Allen, "The Standard of Living in the Soviet Union, 1928- 1940"

Robert C. Allen, "A Multisection Simulation Model of Soviet Economics Development"

Robert C. Allen, "Capital Accumulation, The Soft Budget Constraint and Soviet Industrialization"

Paul Beaudry and Charles Blackorby, "Taxes and Employment Subsidies in Optimal Redistribution Programs"

The University of Calgary

Apostolos Serletis and Victor Chwee, "Resolving the liquidity puzzle"

Apostolos Serletis and Periklis Gogas, "Chaos in East European black- market exchange rates"

Panos C. Afxentiou and Apostolos Serletis, "Testing for government spending convergence across Canadian provinces"

Dalhousie University

Talan Iscan, "Trade Liberalization and Productivity: A Panel Study of the Mexican Manufacturing Industry"

John Cornwall and Wendy Cornwall, "Unemployment Costs of Inflation Targeting"

Lars Osberg and Kuan Xu, "International Comparisons of Poverty Intensity: Index Decomposition and Bootstrap Inference"

Guelph University

A. Weersink, J. Livernois, J. Shogren and J. Shortle, "Economic Instruments and Environmental Policy in Agriculture"

Scott Rozelle and A. Weersink, "Marketing Reforms, Market Development and Agricultural Production in China"

Jeff Davidson and A. Weersink, "Can Tradeable Permit Markets be Created for Diffuse Source Pollution Problems"

Stephen Duff and E. Goddard, "Oligopoly Power in the Canadian Dairy Industry"

S. Duff, E. Goddard, C. Carambas, F. Cocconi, M. Favagrossa and S. Lariviere, "Returns to Generic Advertising in the Canadian Turkey Industry"

S. Duff and E. Goddard, "The Impact of Trade Liberalization on Canadian Dairy Producers"

Erna van Duren and Beirong Xiong, "Value Added Farm Management Strategies: The Case of Non-Traditional Crops in Ontario"

K. Rollins and A. Lyke, "The Case for Diminishing Marginal Existence Values"

Université Laval

Stephen Gordon and Pascal St-Amour, "State-Dependent Risk Aversion and Asset Prices"

Stephen Gordon and Pascal St-Amour, "A Preference Regime Model of Bull and Bear Markets"

Harry J. Paarsch and Bruce Shearer, "On the Elasticity of Efforts for Piece Rates: Evidence from the British Columbia Tree-Planting Industry"

McMaster University, Dept. of Economics

Peter Kuhn and Arthur Sweetman, "Displacement and Wage Loss: The Role of Union Coverage"

Peter Kuhn and Arthur Sweetman, "Do Labels Matter? Unemployment Insurance and Quits in Canada"

Gordon M. Myers and Yorgos Y. Papageorgiou, "Towards a Better System for Immigration Control"

John B. Burbidge, James A. DePater, Gordon M. Myers and Abhijit Sengupta, "A Coalition-Formation Approach to Equilibrium Federations and Trading Blocs"

Gordon M. Myers and Yorgos Y. Papageorgiou, "Immigration Control and the Welfare State"

Martin J. Osborne and Ariel Rubinstein, "Games with Procedurally Rational Players"

Alan Harrison and William Scarth, "The Effect of Alternative Delivery Methods on Students' Performance in Introductory Economics"

JoAnn Kingston-Riechers, "Does Economic Status Affect the Frequency of Domestic Abuse in Relationships with a History of Violence?"

Syed Ahmad, "Rae, Böhm-Bawerk, and Fisher on the Supply and Demand of Capital"

Syed Ahmad, "Individual and Society in Smith, Lauderdale and Rae and the Subject Matter of Twentieth Century Economics"

Kenneth S. Chan, Stuart Mestelman, and R. Andrew Muller, "Three Essays in Experimental Economics: Market Performance, Voluntary Contributions to Public Goods, and Emission Permit Trading"

Alan A. Diener, R. Andrew Muller, and A. Leslie Robb, "Willingness- to-Pay for Improved Air Quality in Hamilton-Wentworth: A Choice Experiment"

McMaster University Program for Research on the Independence and Economic Security of the Older Population

J.B. Burbidge, "Public Pensions in Canada"

F.T. Denton, B.G. Spencer, "How Old Is Old? Revising the Definition Based on Life Table Criteria"

F.T. Denton, C.H. Feaver and B.G. Spencer, "The Future Population of Canada and Its Age Distribution"

C.J. Rosenthal, A. Martin-Matthews and S.H. Matthews, "Caught in the Middle? Occupancy in Multiple Roles and Help to Parents in a National Probability Sample of Canadian Adults"

A. Martin-Matthews and C.J. Rosenthal, "Women, Work and Caregiving: How Much Difference Does a Great Job Really Make?"

V.W. Marshall and P.J. Clarke, "Health and the Transition from Employment to Retirement"

V.W. Marshall and J.G. Marshall, "Aging and Work in Canada: Firm Policies"

F.T. Denton and B.G. Spencer, "The Changing Economic Circumstances of the Older Population: A Cohort Analysis"

F.T. Denton and B.G. Spencer, "Population Aging and the Maintenance of Social Support Systems"

C.J. Rosenthal, "The Changing Contexts of Family Care in Canada"

P. Raina, S. Dukeshire and J. Lindsay, "Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Primary Causes of Disability Among Canadian Seniors: An Analysis of the 1986 and 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Surveys"

P. Raina, V. Torrance and J. Lindsay, "A Review of the Literature and An Analysis of Mortality and Hospitalization Data to Examine Patterns of Injuries Among Canadian Seniors"

X. Lin, "Saving Before and After Retirement: A Study of Canadian Couples, 1969-1992"

J. Burbidge, D. Fretz and M.R. Veall, "The Effect of RRSPs on Savings in Canada"

P. Raina, S. Dukeshire, L. Chambers, D. Toivonen and J. Lindsay, "Prevalence, Risk Factors, and Health Care Utilization for Injuries Among Canadian Seniors: An Analysis of 1994 National Population Health Survey"

F.T. Denton and B.G. Spencer, "How Well Does the CPI Serve as an Index of Inflation for Older Age Groups?"

L. McDonald, P. Donahue and B. Moore, "Widowhood and Retirement: Women on the Margin"

P. Raina, S. Dukeshire, L.W. Chambers and J. Lindsay, "Sensory Impairments among Canadians 55 years and Older: An Analysis of 1986 and 1991 Health and Activity Limitation Survey"

J.B. Burbidge, L. Magee and A.L. Robb, "Cohort, Year and Age Effects in Canadian Wage Data"

M. Denton and V. Walters, "Age Differences in Women's Perceptions of Their Health Problems and Concerns"

M.A. Denton, P. Raina, J. Lian, A. Gafni, A. Joshi, S. French, C. Rosenthal and D. Willison, "The Role of Health and Age in Financial Preparations for Later Life"

R. Smith, L. Magee, L. Robb and J. Burbidge, "The Independence and Economic Security of Older Women Living Alone"

F.T. Denton and B.G. Spencer, "Demographic Trends, Labour Force Participation, and Long-Term Growth"

F.T. Denton, C.H. Feaver, B.G. Spencer, "Immigration, Labour Force, and the Age Structure of the Population"

McMaster University Institute for Quantitative Study of Economics and Population

F.T. Denton and B.G. Spencer, "The Changing Economic Circumstances of the Older Population: A Cohort Analysis"

F.T. Denton, and B.G. Spencer, "Population Aging and the Maintenance of Social Support Systems"

K.S. Chan and K-J. Ngiam, "Currency Speculation and the Optimum Control of Bank Lending in Singapore Dollar: A Case for Partial Liberalisation"

M.W.L. Chan, W. Rotenberg and Y.M. Che, "The Evolution of Accounting and Economic Reform in the People's Republic of China"

K-L. Liaw and Y. Hayase, "Rural/Urban Migrations in Zimbabwe in 1982-92: Selectivity by Gender, Place of Birth, and Educational Attainment"

C.J. Rosenthal, "The Changing Contexts of Family Care in Canada"

J.L. Callen, C. Fader and I. Krinsky, "Just-in-Time: A Cross-sectional Plant Analysis"

F.T. Denton, C.H. Feaver and B.G. Spencer, "PMEDS-D USERS' MANUAL"

F.T. Denton, C.H. Feaver and B.G. Spencer, "MEDS-E USERS' MANUAL"

I. Krinsky and J. Lee, "Quarterly Earnings Announcements and the Lead/Lag Relationship Between the Stock and Option Markets"

F.T. Denton, B.G. Spencer, "How Well Does the CPI Serve as an Index of Inflation for Older Age Groups?"

F.T. Denton, D.C. Mountain and B.G. Spencer, "Errors of Approximation and Errors of Aggregation in an Almost Ideal Demand System"

F.T. Denton and D.C. Mountain, "On the Biases in Interpreting Macro Elasticities as Micro Elasticities, and Vice Versa, in an Almost Ideal Demand System"

R.E. Robb and A.L. Robb, "Gender and the Study of Economics: Is There a Role Model Effect?"

M.M. Atkinson and G. Bierling, "Is There Convergence in Provincial Spending Priorities?"

F.T. Denton and B.G. Spencer, "Demographic Trends, Labour Force Participation, and Long-Term Growth"

F.T. Denton, C.H. Feaver and B.G. Spencer, "Immigration, Labour Force, and the Age Structure of the Population"

Université de Montréal, Département de sciences économiques

F.J. Ruge-Murcia, "Heterodox Inflation Stabilization in Argentian, Brazil, and Israel: A Historical Review and Some Stylized Facts"

B. Akitoby, "Rigidité nominate, dévaluation at équilibre général intertemporel"

Serena Ng and Francisco J. Ruge-Murcia, "Explaining the Persistence of Commodity Prices"

Yves Sprumont, "Cooperative or Noncooperative Behavior?"

Ulrich Hege and Pascale Viala, "Contentious Contracts"

Francisco J. Ruge-Murcia, "Credibility and Signaling in Disinflations: A Cross Country Examination"

Touharni Abdelkhalek and Jean-Marie Dufour, "Statistical Inference for Computable General Equilibrium Models with Application to a Model of the Moroccan Economy"

Richard Bird et François Vaillancourt, "Décentralisation financière et pays en développement: concepts, mesure et évaluation"

Marco Bonomo and René Garcia, "Tests of Conditional Asset Pricing Models in the Brazilian Stock Market"

Marco Bonomo and René Garcia, "The Macroeconomic Effects of Infrequent Information with Adjustment Costs"

Hassan Benchekroun and Gérard Gaudet, "On the Profitability of Production Constraints in a Dynamic Natural Resource Oligopoly"

Gérard Gaudet, Michel Moreaux and Stephen W. Salant, "Intertemporal and Spacial Depletion of Landfills"

(Université de Montréal) École des Hautes Études Commericales Institut d'économie appliquée

Ruth Dupré, "To Smoke or not to Smoke that WAS the Question: The Fight over the Prohibition of Cigarettes at the Turn of the 20th Century"

Martin Coiteux and Denis Bélanger, "Consumption, Saving and the Real Return on Household Wealth in Canada"

Denis Bolduc, Bernard Fortin, France Labrecque and Paul Lanoie, "Incentive Effects of Public Insurance Programs on the Occurrence and the Composition of Workplace Injuries"

Maurice N. Marchon, "Perspectives économiques canadiennes dans un contexte international"

Chaire de gestion des risques

B. Caillaud, G. Dionne and B. Jullien, "Corporate Insurance with Optimal Financial Contracting

G. Dionne and L. Caron, "Insurance Fraud Estimation: More Evidence from the Quebec Automobile Insurance Industry"

C. Vanasse et G. Dionne, "Une évaluation empirique de la nouvelle tarification de l'assurance automobile (1992) au Québec"

R. Gagné, G. Dionne et L. Bujold, "Assurance valeur à neuf et vols d'automobiles: une étude statistique"

G. Dionne, C. Laberge-Nadeau, U. Maag, D. Desjardins et S. Messier, "Analyse de l'effet des règles d'obtention d'un permis de conduire au Québec (1991) sur la sécurité routière"

L. Eeckhoudt, P. Godfroid et M. Marchand, "Risque de santé, médecine préventive et médecine curative"

G. Dionne et E.B. Belhadji, "Développement d'un système expert de détection auomatique de la fraude à l'assurance automobile"

R. Gagné and G. Dionne, "The Non-Optimality of Deductible Contracts Against Fraudulent Claims: An Empirical Evidence in Automobile Insurance"

University of New Brunswick

G. C. Ruggeri, "On the Fiscal Dividend and the Federal Debt"

University of Ottawa

K.M. Day and R.A. Devlin, "The Nonprofit Sector and Public Policy in Canada"

M. Seccareccia et A. Parguez, "Les pollitiques d'inflation zéro: la vraie cause de la hausse tendancielle du chômage dans les pays occidentaux"

K.M. Day and S. Coulombe, "Regional Convergence in Canada and the United States: Does the Border Matter?"

R.Q. Grafton and V. Barham, "Rewriting Rio: What's Wrong with the Convention on Climate Change?"

G. White, "Macroeconomics and the Choice of Technique: Long- Period Coherence and the 'Keynes Effect'"

G. White, "Increasing Flexibility in Relative Labour Costs as a Means of Reducing Unemployment: Do the Theoretical Foundations Exist?"

Queen's University

Robin Boadway, Maurice Marchand and Motohiro Sato, "Subsidies Versus Public Provision of Private Goods as Instruments for Redistribution"

Motohiro Sato, "A Second Best Theory of a Fiscal Federal System"

Russell Davidson and James G. MacKinnon, "Bootstrap Testing in Nonlinear Models"

Christopher Ferrall and Anthony A. Smith Jr., "A Sequential Game Model of Sports Championship Series: Theory and Estimation"

John M. Hartwick, "On Imputing for Financial Services in the National Accounts: Commercial Banking in General Equilibrium"

Kelly Bedard and Christopher Ferrall, ":Wage and Test Score Dispersion: Some International Evidence"

Kelly Bedard, John Dorland, Allan W. Gregory and Mark Rosenberg, "Standardized Mortality Ratios in Capitation Funding Models: Empirical Issues from Canadian Data"

Robin Boadway, Nicolas Marceau, Motohiro Sato, "An Agency Model of Welfare and Disability Assistance"

Frank D. Lewis and M.C. Urquhart, "Growth and the Standard of Living in a Pioneer Economy: Upper Canada, 1826 to 1851"

Russell Davidson and James G. MacKinnon, "Bootstrap Testing: How Many Bootstraps?"

James Bergin and Arunava Sen "Extensive Form Implementation in Incomplete Information Environments"

Yongmin Chen and Ruqu Wang, "Learning Buyers' Valuation Distribution in Posted-Price Selling"

University of Regina

Marion E. Jones, "Rising Inequality and Declining Living Standards in China Since 1983"

Michael Rushton, "The Moral Rights of Artists: Droit Moral ou Droit Pécuniaire?"

Royal Military College of Canada

L. McDonough and U.G. Berkok, "Child care as investment in human capital"

H. Hassan-Yari, "Politique etrangere de la Republique islamique de l'Iran: une etude comparative"

T.L. Thomas, "Partitioning Montreal: Deliberate provocation or logical consequence?"

P. Paquette, Conference socio-economique, Sommet sur l'emploi, Commission sur la fiscalite: les voies du neo-liberalisme a Quebec"

P. Dunnett, "RMC academic costs and civilian university costs: A production function approach"

S. Keita and L. McDonough, "Credibilite et financement de la dette publique"

H. Nicol and R. Dobbin, "Planning at the edge: An evaluation of Ontario's planning legislation since World War II"

Simon Fraser University

Gregory K. Dow, "The Firm as a Nexus of Strategies"

Clyde G. Reed and Cliff T. Bekar, "Religious Prohibitions Against Usury"

University of Toronto

Miquel Faig and Pauline Shum, "Investment Irreversibility and Endogenous Financing: An Evaluation of the Corporate Tax Effects" [UT-ECIPA-FAIG-97-02.html]

Miquel Gaig, "Investment Irreversibility in General Equilibrium: Capital Accumulation, Interest Rates, and the Risk Premium" [UT-ECIPA-FAIG-97-01.html]

Michael Smart, "On the efficiency of uniform taxation in a many- consumer economy" [UT-ECIPA-MSMART-97-01.html]

Larry G. Epstein, "Uncertainty Aversion" [UT-ECIPA-EPSTEIN-97-01.html]

Michael Peters, "Surplus Extraction and Competition" [UT-ECIPA-PETERS-97-02.html]

Michael K. Berkowitz and Yehuda Kotowitz, "The Determinants of Management Expenses" [UT-ECIPA-BERK-97-02.html]

Trent University

Merwan Engineer and Linda Welling, "Human Capital, True Love, and Gender Roles: Is Sex Destiny?"

David Giles, "The Rise and Fall of the New Zealand Underground Economy: Are the Responses Symmetric?"

Shigeyoshi Miyagawa and Yohji Morita, "The Relative Importance of The Money and The Credit Channel of The Transmission Mechanism of Monetary Policy"

Anming Zhang and Yimin Zhang, "Concession Revenue and Optimal Airport Pricing"

Kenneth G. Stewart and J.C.H. Jones, "Hedonics, Implicit Markets, and Demand Analysis: The Implicit Demand for Baseball Player Characteristics"

Donald G. Gerguson, J.C.H. Jones and Kenneth G. Stewart, "Competition within a Cartel: League Conduct and Team Conduct in the Market for Baseball Player Services"

University of Victoria

B. Mak Arvin and Torben Drewes, "Biases in the Allocation of Canadian Official Development Assistance"

University of Waterloo

Lutz-Alexamnder Busch and Ignatius Horstmann, "The Game of Negotiations: Ordering Issues and Implementing Agreements"

The University of Western Ontario

Gustavo Ventura, "Flat Tax Reform: A Quantitative Exploration"

Kermit Daniel, Dan Black and Jeffrey Smith, "College Quality and the Wages of Young Men"

David Laidler, "The Wicksell Connection, The Quantity Theory and Keynes"

Marc Bilodeau and Al Slivinski, "Rational Nonprofit Entrepreneurship"

Mark Huggett and Gustavo Ventura, "On the Distributional Effects of Social Security Reform"

Victor Aguirregabiria, "Estimation of Dynamic Programming Models with Censored Dependent Variables"

Haoming Liu, "Labor Quality and the Cyclicality of Real Wages"

Jian Yang, "Semiparametric Maximum Likelihood Estimation of Nonlinear Regression Models and Monte Carlo Evidence"

Political Economy Research Group, Papers in Political Economy

Herschel I. Grossman and Minseong Kim, "Predation and Moral Decay"

Alwyn Young, "The Razor's Edge: Distortions, Incremental Reform and the Theory of the Second Best in the People's Republic of China"

Uzi Segal, "Let's Agree that All Dictatorships are Equally Bad"

Robert H. Frank, "The Empty Wealth of Nations"

Wilfrid Laurier University

Hahn Shik Lee and Pierre L. Siklos, "The Role of Seasonality in Economic Time Series: Reinterpreting Money-Output Causality in U.S. Data"

Richard C.K. Burdekin and Pierre L. Siklos, "Exchange Rate Regimes and Shifts in Inflation Persistence: Does Nothing Else Matter?"

Pierre L. Siklos and John Anusiewicz, "The Effect of Canadian and U.S. M1 Announcements on Canadian Financial Markets: The Crow Years"

Max Gillman, Pierre L. Siklos and J. Lew Silver, "Money Velocity with Costly Credit"

Pierre L. Siklos and Clive W.J. Granger, "Regime Sensitive Cointegration With an Application to Interest Rate Parity"

Pierre L. Siklos and William L. Marr, "The Unemployment Insurance Compensation Experience of Immigrants in Canada, 1980-1988"

University of Winnipeg

Philippe Cyrenne and Robert Fenton, "On the Incentive Effects of Municipal Tax Credits: An Application to Historic Building Rehabilitation"

Hugh Grant and Henry Thille, "The Merger Movement in Canadian Petroleum Refining, 1886-1898: How Standard Oil Came to Canada"

Xiao-yuan Dong, "Public Investment, Social Services and Productivity of Chinese Household Farms: A Stochastic Frontier Analysis"

Xiao-yuan Dong and Louis Putterman, "Pre-Reform Industry and State Monopsony"

Xiao-yuan Dong and Louis Putterman, "China's State-Owned Enterprises in the First Reform Decade: An Analysis of a Declining Monopsony"
Forthcoming Papers/Articles à Paraître
Canadian Journal of Economics / Revue Canadienne d'Economique

R. Todd Smith, "The Friedman Rule and Optimal Monetary Policy"

Hafiz A. Akhand, "Central Bank Independence and Growth: A Sensitivity Analysis"

Ramon Lopez and Maurice Schiff, "Migration and the Skill Composition of the Labor Force: The Impact of Trade Liberalization in LDCs"

Kevin J. Lansing, "Optimal Fiscal Policy in a Business Cycle Model with Public Capital"

Peter N. Ireland, "Alternative Nominal Anchors"

Junxi Zhang, "Market Restrictions and Economic Growth"

Ruqu Wang, "Auctions versus Posted-Price Selling: The Case of Correlated Private Valuations"

David R. Johnson and Darren McIlwraith, "Opinion Polls and Canadian Bond Yields During the 1995 Quebec Referendum"

Slobodan Djajic, Sajal Lahiri and Pascalis Raimondos-Moller, "The Transfer Problem and the Intertemporal Terms of Trade"

Audra J. Bowlus, "U.S.-Canadian Unemployment and Wage Differences Among Young Low-Skilled Males in the 1980s"

Xiao-Yuan Dong, "Trigger Strategies in Chinese Agricultural Teams"

Cheng Wang and Stephen D. Williamson, "Debt Contracts with Financial Intermediation with Costly Screening"

Robin Lindsey and Andre de Palma, "Information and Usage of Congestible Facilities Under Different Pricing Regimes"

Wen-ya Chang, Hsueh-Fang Tsai and Ching-Chong Lai, "Government Spending and Capital Accumulation"

Arthur Sweetman and Peter Kuhn, "Unemployment Insurance and Quits in Canada"

James Feehan, "Optimal Provision of Hicksian Public Inputs"

Cheng Wang and Stephen D. Williamson, "Debt Contracts and Financial Intemediation with Costly Screening"

Quan Wen, Lutz-Alexander Busch and Shouyong Shi, "Bargaining with Surplus Destruction"

Kenneth Stollery, "Constant Utility Paths and Irreversible Global Warming"

Bruce J. Smith, J. Bhattacharya and Mark Guzman, "Some Even More Unpleasant Monetarist Arithmetic"

David A. Green and Timothy Sargent, "Unemployment Insurance and Job Durations: Seasonal and Non-Seasonal Jobs"

James Vercammen, "Export Credit as a Mechanism for Price Discrimination"

Krishna Pendakur and Ravi Pendakur, "The Colour of Money Earnings Differentials Among Ethnic Groups in Canada"

Krishna Srinivasan and Ashoka Mody, "Japanese and the United States Firms as Foreign Investors: Do they march to the same tune?"

Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques

Christopher Worswick and James T. McDonald, "Unemployment Incidence of Immigrant Men in Canada"

Daniel Hosseus and Leslie A. Pal, "Anatomy of a Policy Area: The Case of Shipping"

Ross McKitrick, "Double Dividend Environmental Taxation and Canadian Carbon Emissions Control"

Arnold de Silva, "Immigrant Participation in the Unemployment Insurance System"

Grace Skogstad, "Canadian Federalism, Internationalization and Quebec Agriculture: Dis-Engagement, Re-Integration?"

Deanna L. Williamson and Janet E. Fast, "Poverty Status, Health Behaviours, and Health: Implications for Social Assistance and Health Care Policy"

Donald D. Carter, "Employment Benefits for Same Sex Couples: The Expanding Entitlement"

Michael Y. Seelig and Julie H. Seelig, "Place Your Bets! On Gambling, Government and Society"

Andrew J. Green, "Public Participation and Environmental Policy Outcomes"

Surendra Gera and Kurt Mang, "The Knowledge-Based Economy: Shifts in Industrial Output"